Rural-Urban Migration

Rural-urban migration patterns can be either voluntary or involuntary. Involuntary in-migration is often the result of populations being pushed out of their communities to make room for development and infrastructure; voluntary resettlement occurs in response to the pull of economic opportunity, such as employment. Though the populations in both categories are at risk for unemployment homelessness, food insecurity, education loss, and social isolation, the forms these risks can take are varied. 

Rural-urban migrants face intensified impoverishment risks of landlessness, homelessness, and increased morbidity as compared to urban-urban and rural-rural relocation, as migrants can be less familiar with the challenges of life in an urban setting. Lack of adequate education or training can prevent access to the social, educational, and economic opportunities that attracted migrants to cities, resulting in low-paying and unstable employment. 

Learn more about rural-urban migration in:

India, Cambodia, Bangladesh, South Africa